The book of Romans is Paul’s great theological treatise on justification by faith through Christ’s death on the cross as the sacrifice for the sins of humanity. Chapter 2 announces God’s judgment and explains that the judgment by the law, which requires human action, and the circumcision performed by human action is not sufficient for the removal of sin and acquiring righteousness. Nothing that humans can do will bring them into a right relationship with God.Chapter 3 begins with the statement that no one is justified by works, but only through Christ’s atoning sacrifice. Atonement is God’s making a person at-one with Him, which can only occur through the perfect sacrifice. Only through this sacrifice is true compensation made for the sins of humanity.
Finally, from the end of chapter 3 through chapter 4, Paul shows how the ritual of the sacrifice provided for in the Old Testament did not provide the sufficient, perfect pardon for sins. Christ’s death provided this sufficient perfect pardon for all humanity. Still, not all are saved from death because they do not choose by faith to accept Christ’s sacrifice. Paul makes the distinct point that each person must accept Jesus’ sacrifice by faith in Him. This faith of the person in Christ’s sacrifice must be exercised for the atonement to be effected in the life of the person for their eternal station, life eternal.
Because this book is packed with theological and legal terms, I have endeavored to understand each verse individually and within the whole of Paul’s presentation of salvation.
If the uncircumcised man keeps the Law, his uncircumcision will be accounted as circumcision, for it is not the outward sign of circumcision that makes you a Jew but the inward circumcision of the heart that makes you a Jew, a child of God (from chapter 2). This inward circumcision of the heart, which is of the Spirit not of the flesh which is by the written word, is what brings one into a heart/spirit relationship with God. It is what is inside a person and comes from the person that determines if they are circumcised.
The question then that Paul writes in this verse is compelling. What is the advantage of the Jew if any who allows his heart to be circumcised can be called a child of God?
2 Great in every respect. First of all, that they were entrusted with the oracles of God.
First, they were the ones to whom God spoke His oracles, His Word and commands. The non-Jew can be accorded as being a part of the people with whom God entrusted the Law, to teach and to pronounce obedience to Him, if they have circumcised their hearts and follow His Law. All must remember, though, that none will have entrance into God’s eternal Kingdom without the permanent remission of sins, which God will provide through the death of His only Son, Jesus Christ. The Law could not save a person but it points a person to the Lord God.
3 What then? If some did not believe, their unbelief will not nullify the faithfulness of God, will it?
If some did not believe based on the Law, will this make God unfaithful. We can see that will never happen. God has been faithful through all the Israelite history and even to today. Samuel points out God’s faithfulness and His willingness to listen to His people when He brings a king to be over the Israelites at their request. Samuel recites a list of God’s faithfulness to the people in 1 Samuel 12. The Jews unbelief did not nullify God’s faithfulness; it did shadow the people’s faithfulness.
4 May it never be! Rather, let God be found true, though every man be found a liar, as it is written, "THAT YOU MAY BE JUSTIFIED IN YOUR WORDS, AND PREVAIL WHEN YOU ARE JUDGED."
Though the words that come from our mouths contradict our actions, God is always faithful to His word through His actions. God’s foretelling have all been fulfilled or the promise of them has yet to come. God is always faithful.
5 But if our unrighteousness demonstrates the righteousness of God, what shall we say? The God who inflicts wrath is not unrighteous, is He? (I am speaking in human terms.)
Paul answers this question in verse 6.
Even though we remain unrighteous because all men sin and fall short of God, we can know that God remains faithful and His righteousness is not sullied. In our unrighteousness, God still shows His righteousness by offering us cleansing of our sins by faith in His Son, Jesus Christ. God’s righteousness is shown even in our unrighteousness; His wrath does not make Him unrighteous. His wrath is Holy indignation over our sinful acts and words. His wrath leads to discipline which is aimed at returning us to Him. Therefore, God’s wrath does not make Him unrighteous; it shows His holiness.
7 But if through my life the truth of God abounded to His glory, why am I also still being judged as a sinner?
God’s faithfulness to forgive us does not increase if we sin more. God only needed to provide one sin sacrifice, that being Jesus Christ. This is a reiteration of verses 5 & 6.
We do not show God’s glory more by sinning more. That is a fallacy. God is glorified because of Who He is, not because of what we do. God will always give us our reward even if it is punishment. God is a just Father God and He will discipline His people when they need to correction to turn them around and see Him.
8 And why not say (as we are slanderously reported and as some claim that we say ), "Let us do evil that good may come"? Their condemnation is just.
Since God is faithful and righteous even when I lie and sin, why should I even need to be faithful and strive to follow the Law? Paul puts forth this hypothetical question and then answers it with the next verse. Will not my sin make good come because God’s actions are always right and good?
9 What then? Are we better than they? Not at all ; for we have already charged that both Jews and Greeks are all under sin;
Neither Jew nor Greek is without sin and their sin does not make God righteous or gracious. Our sin brings about disciplining from God to lead us back to His way, the path of righteousness. Paul asserts in verse 10 “there is none righteous, not even one.” God had to send His Son to be the final sacrifice for sinful humanity because we could do nothing to bring ourselves into right standing with God. Our circumcision of the flesh did not make us righteous; it set the Jews apart from the rest of the people. We even found out that though the Gentiles were not physically circumcised, they who followed the Law of God that was written upon their hearts and on the tablets were circumcised of the heart. This means that the Law we followed or did not follow was not enough to make us righteous (holy enough) to enter into God’s presence. God had to provide that one sacrifice that would be sufficient for all the sins of humanity. Whether a person follows the written Law or the law written on the heart, it is not enough to keep our sins from making us unable to enter God’s righteous presence. For us to be able to be in communion with God, a means for our being made right, justification, had to be made. God made that means through the perfect, sufficient sin sacrifice in the death of His Son, Jesus Christ.
19 Now we know that whatever the Law says, it speaks to those who are under the Law, so that every mouth may be closed and all the world may become accountable to God;
As Paul showed above, the Law cannot make us righteous, able to be in God’s presence. It serves to identify a person who is in connection with God, one who keeps His Laws and statutes, and it points to God Who issued the Law. The Law serves to convict us of our sins; it shows us our sins by the fact that we could not keep the 10 Commandments.
20 because by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in His sight; for through the Law comes the knowledge of sin.
These commandments show us that we could not even keep just 10 commands; we could not walk in accordance with God 100% of the time. We are weak sinners, and need a way to be cleansed so that we can be made holy enough (righteous before God) to be in His presence. The means to become righteous comes through Jesus Christ. The Son of God is the only means in which a person can be cleansed to be considered justified/righteous enough to be in Yahweh’s presence. Humans can do nothing to make the stain of sin in their lives go away. God provided the only means available to do that through His Son, Jesus Christ.
If Jesus had been just a man, His name would have been Jesus bar Joseph (Jesus the son of Joseph) or Jesus of Nazareth. Instead, God gave His name in prophecies long before His birth. He was to be called the Savior. Upon looking at the Hebrew and Greek, the name Jesus came from Yehosua and Iesous, meaning salvation. Jesus was named before His birth. The name Christ came from the Greek word Kristos, which came from the Hebrew Masiah meaning “the anointed one.” Jesus Christ would become the anointed Savior of all humanity. The Law could not save the people from the death their sin deserved. Only Christ could be the sufficient sacrifice for our sins.; He became the anointed sufficient sacrifice for the sins of all humanity. As the Son of Yahweh, Who is the maker of the Law, only the blood of the Son of Yahweh would be sufficient to atone for the sin from which the Law could not save humanity.
21 But now apart from the Law the righteousness of God has been manifested, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets,
Long before God brought forth His perfect means to righteousness, He had a plan, which He revealed through the Law and the Prophets. His prophets speak of this Yehosua and Masiah. They speak of the one Who will come and save Yahweh’s people. The people of the time thought the prophets and priests were speaking of a man who would free them from the outside forces putting them in peril. They did not consider that it was to free them from the sin that came from the hearts, minds, and spirits. Sins come from within a man or woman. God knew before humanity, that some of the strongest battles would have to be won internally. Humanity did not consider their mind, heart, and spirit, as the source of their sinful selves. They only consider sin as coming from their body/actions. This is one of the reasons He gave the Jews the Shema, which states, “You shall love the lord your God with all your heart, with all your mind and with all your strength.” He gave them the basis from which they should see the battle and where they would need Yahweh to give them His strength. We need someone Who is stronger than ourselves to make us strong enough to withstand temptations. We cannot do anything to save ourselves from our sins. There is nothing we can do to be righteous. We need God’s plan to be saved; we need the strength of or Creator to be more powerful than the strength we have been given. God’s method of justification is not new; He foretold it throughout the Old Testament times through His prophets. It was not a new righteousness but is a newly revealed plan of righteousness.
God had to show them that not only is He the God of the Law, but He is God over everything. He had to remind them of His power which makes Him the God over heart, mind, strength. He is also the God over the spirit of the person. Christ expanded the Shema when He told the disciples the greatest commandment in Matthew 22:27-28.
22 even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all those who believe; for there is no distinction ;
It is through faith that we believe in Jesus Christ and receive the righteousness He imparts to us. We must not only love the Lord God with all our heart, mind, and strength, but also with our spirit (Matthew 22:37-38). We cannot say that we are doing this until we give Him our hearts, mind, body, and spirit. Secular society says that belief is irrational; however, even if you find it irrational, try God; ask God for faith and He will give it to you so that the eyes of your spirit will see Him and accept Him. Faith is a gift from God and He wills to give it to anyone who asks. Faith is the first gift Paul mentions when he tells the Corinthians which are the greatest gifts. He says the greatest gifts are faith, hope, and love. God seeks to be known to His creation, the children to whom He is calling. To make it possible, He has given His Son, Jesus Christ, “the anointed Savior,” and He will give faith upon request. By giving this faith and by giving this salvation through the death and resurrection of Christ, God has made a way for us to become righteous and to be in His presence for eternity. There is no distinction made between Jews or Gentiles, men or women, slave or free person. God calls to all of humanity to come to Him. All of us have fallen short of attaining glory and being in His presence because we have all sinned against God. As verse 23 says, “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.
Being justified (made righteous or put in right standing with God) is a gift He gives us because of love that we do not deserve, His grace. There is nothing we can do to earn it. He gives it to us as an earthly parent would give a gift to their child. He gives it because we are His children. This right standing with God comes through the redemption found through the death/blood of Jesus Christ. Because of our sins, we had to be redeemed. Without something to make s clean from or wrong doings, we could not be in the presence of the holy God. God cannot be in the presence of sin. This is similar now when someone is put into jail for committing a crime. If that person is put into jail and then one day the jailor comes to him and tells him he is free to go, even though he was expecting to spend the rest of his life in jail, that person will wonder who is taking his penalty for the crime he did. That criminal is us. We have each not kept up the standard of the law of life. We are each guilty. God, though, in His love, wants us to be with Him in His castle so He sends someone else to go to jail and die for us and the sin we committed. That person is Jesus. Jesus not only took the penalty for the sin which put us in jail, but He fulfilled all the requirements of the Law and was able to be returned to normal life because, not only did he become the sacrifice for our crime, but He is the King’s Son. His sacrifice was perfect and fulfilled all the requirements of the law. The law could not keep Him because He was the maker of the law. He fulfilled the Law, became the sacrifice, and paid the whole debt, because of His love. He gave us a pardon from the just penalty for our crime.
25 whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith. This was to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins previously committed ;
With Jesus’ fulfilling of all our criminal penalties, He demonstrated how great God’s love is. It demonstrated how right and pure His sacrifice was in that this one sacrifice is all that will ever be needed for any sin we commit. The blood of the Son of God, the Holy One, is the only sacrifice that could have cleansed all our sin from the past, present, and future. It is a faith in the blood of Jesus to cleanse us from our sins that makes us able to be in God’s presence. Faith that Jesus’ blood and death is the sufficient sacrifice for or wrongdoings is what makes us clean. No other sacrifice would be sufficient for all our sin, for under the Law, each sin had to have a separate sacrifice. Jesus’ sacrifice was sufficient for all sin because His blood is the blood of The King, the one who made the laws for humanity. His righteousness is the only thing that could have made the sacrifice perfect for the sins of all humanity. Only the Lord, the Maker of the Law, could provide the satisfactory sacrifice and pardon for all sins against the law. God passed over the sins previously through the ancient sacrificial system and the Law until the time was right for the perfect sacrifice. This is what is meant when Paul speaks of the forbearance of God. Christ is the perfect sacrifice to take away the sins of all humanity, past, present, and future. There was no remission of sin until Christ offered Himself as the perfect sacrifice. Before Christ’s sacrifice, there was only forbearance.
26 for the demonstration, I say, of His righteousness at the present time, so that He would be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.
Because God is the King and the maker of the Law, He is the only one who can provide the only perfect sacrifice for sins against the Law. Thus, He is not only the Lawmaker, but also the justice, jury, and the justifier. Therefore, He could provide the only adequate provision for the punishment, which would allow the sinner/criminal to go free. He is the only One who could provide the pardon through Jesus’ perfect sacrifice. Jesus was just in punishing and merciful in pardoning. Jesus, in His righteousness, through His death, was made the substitution for us and our sins so that His blood and death became the perfect sacrifice and the perfect means of pardon. Justice was fully satisfied with Christ’s sacrifice.
The view for Old Testament believers in Yahweh is that God put up with and passed over their sins awaiting God’s timing for their future expiation (washing away). The New Testament tells of the promised means of cleansing and pardon.
27 Where then is boasting? It is excluded. By what kind of law? Of works? No, but by a law of faith.
Only by this method of forgiveness are both Jew and Gentile made equally forgiven. This method is open to Jew and Gentile equally, to all people. None of us could have provided the restitution for our sinful acts. There is nothing we could do to pay back fully for our crime. Nothing we could say would be sufficient to pay back for our wrongdoings. The Law could not provide the payment, just the condemnation and the required sacrifice mandated by God so that He could pass over our sins for the time being. All we can do is ask for faith to believe the truth, that God provided the sufficient restitution for our sins; He gave the sufficient propitiation, means for making us at one (atonement) with God.. The Law was given by a King’s mandate and only by a King’s restitution could it be fulfilled. There is nothing we can do or say that would provide the sacrifice necessary for our sin; our crimes are against God. No human could ever provide a remedy for our sin great enough to appease our sin against our God.
Paul reiterates what he and the other apostles of Christ believe and have learned from Christ that humanity is only made righteous/justified by faith in the saving blood and death of Jesus Christ, not by doing/following the works of the Law. The Law only served to make humanity aware of its’ sinfulness towards God and the need for a Savior from Yahweh. All of the Old Testament/Old Covenant pointed to this need for a Savior because of the inability of humanity to keep the Law. The Law was there to point people to God. This sacrifice of God’s perfect Son, Who is wholly man and wholly God, provides the perfect sacrifice for Jew and Gentile, the whole family of humanity. This sacrifice also made for a universal religion.
He reiterates that God is the God of Jew and Gentile, those who circumcised their flesh and then came to give their hearts to God and those who did not circumcise the flesh but yet gave their hearts to God. Remember, the Law serves to point us to God. Some were pointed to God by the Spirit acting within their hearts. Some were pointed to God by the bodily action of the Law, like circumcision or sacrifice. Circumcision was required by Yahweh to show to the world the people whom God had called to Himself. Performing the act of circumcision and knowing God circumcises them should have made them remember the God of their fathers and kindled in them the desire to follow Him.
30 since indeed God who will justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised through faith is one.
The same God calls both the Jew and the Gentile. It is not just the circumcised of the flesh He calls but He calls all those who have circumcised hearts towards Him. The Jews were circumcised by faith and the Gentile believers were circumcised of faith. The first was a law mandated to be performed upon a man. The latter is the choice of a person to give his or her heart and life to God. However, this faith by the latter does not make the Law null and void.
31 Do we then nullify the Law through faith ? May it never be! On the contrary, we establish the Law.
This doctrine of justification by faith does not dissolve the obligation of the law, which is to bring people to God. Justification by faith in the atoning power of the blood of Jesus Christ fulfills the law. The Law is fulfilled through Christ’s life, death, and resurrection. Only a King’s sacrifice could fulfill a King’s Law and proscribed punishment/discipline. The proscribed restitution was a perfect sacrifice and that perfect sacrifice could only be acquired through the life of Jesus the Messiah. Additionally, we who were raised in a God-fearing home do not automatically have pardon for sins. Each of us must personally ask and accept the gift of faith to believe in Christ’s once for all sacrifice and believe it is sufficient for our sins. We must believe that God loves us so much that He would allow His only Son to die as the means to secure our permanent pardon for punishment of our wrong doings. Christ is the complete and perfect fulfiller of the Law of God since He is God’s Son.
When a person accepts by faith Jesus’ sacrifice to bring him or her into right standing with God (to be made at-one with Him), he or she fully apprehends God’s law and, at that point, God is brought fully to the throne of the person’s heart and life. The person sees fully Who Jesus is and believes by faith in the gift that God gave through His death, the perfect atoning for the sin of each person. Whether we grow up in a religious household or not, whether we are rich or poor, Jew or not, we each must choose who we will follow, the One who loves us so much He paid for our sins with His life or our fallible, selfish, sinful selves. We each must choose to enthrone God in our hearts, minds, and spirits and to follow Him with all our being.
“Choose you this day whom you will serve/follow. [The god of your fathers or of your neighbors]...But as for me and my house, we will serve Lord.” (Joshua 24:15 AMP)